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Hayne, the Southern
poet (who died in 1886), and the oration of the day was by Robert C.
Winthrop.

It was a graceful tribute to the friendly course of England, when
Secretary Blaine, at the reception which followed the ceremonies, read
the following order:

"In recognition of the friendly relations so long and so happily
existing between Great Britain and the United States, in the trust
and confidence of peace and good-will between the two countries for
all centuries to come, and especially as a mark of the profound
respect entertained by the American people for the illustrious
sovereign and gracious lady who sits upon the British throne, it is
hereby ordered that at the close of these services, commemorative of
the valor and success of our forefathers in their patriotic struggle
for independence, the British flag shall be saluted by the forces of
the army and navy of the United States now at Yorktown. The secretary
of war and the secretary of the navy will give orders accordingly.


"CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

"By the PRESIDENT.
"JAMES G. BLAINE, Secretary of State."

The final ceremonies of Yorktown occurred on the 20th of October, at
which time 9,000 sailors, regulars, and militia made an impressive
spectacle. They were under the command of General Hancock, and
represented all of the thirteen original States, including a number of
others. They passed in review before the President, both branches of
Congress, governors of the States and their staffs, and the French and
German guests of the government.


ATTEMPTS TO REACH THE NORTH POLE.

One of these days the North Pole will be reached, but no one can say
when. For hundreds of years the attempt has been made again and again,
and daring navigators have penetrated far into those icy regions, where
the temperature for months at a time registers forty, fifty, and sixty
degrees below zero, only to perish or be turned back disappointed.

The first American expedition into the Arctic regions was conducted by
Dr. Elisha Kent Kane. He sailed from New York in the steamer _Advance_,
May 30, 1853. He reached Smith Strait, as far as Cape George Russell,
and then returned to Van Rensselaer Harbor for the winter. A number of
excursions were made from that point, and 125 miles of coast were traced
to the north and east. Two of the men penetrated to Washington Land in
latitude 82° 27', and discovered an open channel, which they named
Kennedy. Kane came home in 1855, having been further north than any
other explorer. He was obliged to abandon his ship and proceed overland
to the Danish settlements in the south, where he was met by a relief
party.

One of the members of this expedition was Dr. Isaac I. Hayes, who, in
1860, attained 81° 35' north latitude, when he was forced to return
without having accomplished anything of importance. Sir John Franklin,
an English navigator, had been lost in the Arctic regions a number of
years before, and several expeditions had been sent in search of him,
but all failed to secure any definite information. In 1860, Dr. Charles
F. Hall, of Connecticut, led an expedition in quest of the lost
explorer. He was unfortunate enough to lose his boat and was obliged to
return. The most interesting discoveries made by Dr. Hall were a number
of relics of Frobisher's expedition to those dismal regions fully 300
years before. A second party, under Hall, found the same year several
relics of Franklin, and dissipated all possible hope that he or any of
his men were still living.

Dr. Hall was an enthusiastic explorer of those inhospitable regions and
spent five years among the Eskemos. Coming home, he organized a third
party, for, cheerless and dismal as are those frozen solitudes, they
seemed to hold a resistless fascination to all who have visited them.
This expedition reached 80° north latitude, where Hall died.


THE GREELY EXPEDITION.

In 1880, the proposal was made by an international polar commission that
the leading countries should unite in establishing meteorological
stations in the polar region. This was with no intention of helping
explorations toward the North Pole, but to permit the study of weather
phenomena and the actions of the magnetic needle, respecting which much
remains to be learned.

Congress appropriated funds with which to establish a scientific colony
for Americans, one at Point Barrow in Alaska and the other at Lady
Franklin Bay in Grinnell Land. These stations were to be occupied for
periods varying from one to three years.

The party designed for Lady Franklin Bay consisted of First Lieutenant
Adolphus W. Greely, U.S.A., Commander; Lieutenants F.S. Kislingbury and
James B. Lockwood, U.S.A., as assistants; and Dr. O. Pavy as surgeon and
naturalist. In addition, there were twenty-two sergeants, corporals, and
privates, all belonging to the army, and two Eskemos. All the other
attempts to establish circumpolar stations, numbering about a dozen,
were successful.

The steamer _Proteus_ conveyed the expedition to Lady Franklin Bay, the
start being made from the harbor of St. John's, Newfoundland. It would
seem that every needed precaution had been taken to avert disaster.
Since the expedition had an attainable point fixed upon as its
destination, it would seem that it had only to establish a base, where
the government would deposit abundant supplies, to which Greely could
return when he chose or when he found himself compelled to retreat. Then
he could carry forward supplies on his sleds and leave them at different
points along his route, so that he would be sure of finding them on his
return. This scheme is so simple that it would seem that there was no
possible, or at least probable, way of going wrong. Yet misfortune has
been the fate of most of the Arctic expeditions.

It was arranged that two ships were to go to Lady Franklin Bay in the
summer of 1883 to bring back the explorers. These ships were to be the
steam whaler _Proteus_ and the United States gunboat _Yantic_, commanded
by Lieutenant E.A. Garlington; but the _Proteus_, when near Cape Sabine
and before she had landed her supplies, was crushed by the ice and sunk.
With great difficulty, Garlington and his men escaped from the wreck in
small boats and made their way to Upernavik, where they had left the
_Yantic_. The party then returned to the United States, without having
left an ounce of supplies at Lady Franklin Bay, where Greely expected to
find all he needed on his return.

Now let us follow the exploring party under Greely which left St.
John's, Newfoundland, July 7, 1881, in the _Proteus_, that was afterward
lost. Icebergs were soon encountered, but seven hundred miles were
passed without any land appearing. The days had lengthened, light
appearing shortly after midnight and lasting until ten o'clock the
succeeding night, but the fog was dense and all-pervading. On July 16th,
the _Proteus_ was steaming cautiously through the mist, when the icy
coast of Disco Island, several hundred feet in height, loomed up
directly ahead.

The most interesting sight was a vast iceberg in two parts, joined by an
immense overhanging arch, under which it would have been easy for the
ship to sail. The captain was too wise to make any such attempt. He
steamed to one side of it, and, when some distance beyond, fired a
signal gun for a pilot. The report was followed by a thunderous
rumbling, and, looking back, the crew saw the vast arch, weighing
thousands of tons, descend to the water with a crash that caused the
steamer to rock to and fro for several minutes. Had she been caught
beneath the mass, she would have been crushed like a tiny insect.

A landing was made at the settlement of Disco. In this squalid town all
the dwellings were mere huts, with the exception of those of the
inspector and governor. It was a strange sight to find in one of these
dwellings in the North a piano, billiard table, carpets, and many of the
luxuries of civilized life. The visitors were treated with the utmost
hospitality and took part in a dance in progress.

Returning to the _Proteus_ the party steamed through the fog to
Upernavik, which was reached on the 23d of July. They were never out of
sight of icebergs, but they caused no trouble, and were easily avoided.
By means of the steam launch, several men made a passage through inner
waters to Proven, a sparse settlement, where they procured some clothing
suitable for the high latitudes.

These settlements, far beyond the Arctic Circle, belong to Denmark,
which exercises a nominal control over them. One of the industries of
Proven is the furnishing of supplies to Arctic explorers. A liberal
quantity of fresh food was secured, beside two native guides and
thirty-two Eskemo dogs. It was near here that McClintock, the explorer,
was frozen in for an entire year; but the weather continued unusually
mild. A mountainous iceberg while drifting slowly with the current
sloughed off so much from one side that its centre of gravity was
displaced and the mountain of ice turned a complete somersault before it
settled to rest.

There is hardly any limit to the time in which provisions can be
preserved in the polar regions. A cache was found among the Gary Islands
which had been left by Sir George Nares years before, and nearly all was
in as good condition as when placed there. One of the strange phenomena
of the Arctic regions is the red snow, mentioned by Sir John Ross, which
was seen by the Greely party. This color is found to be due to myriads
of tiny plants deposited on the crust. That most eminent botanist,
Robert Brown, subjected it to careful examination and pronounced it to
be a unicellular plant of the order _Algæ_, and Dr. Greville, of
Edinburgh, gave it its name (_Protococcus nivalis_), by which it is now
known to the scientific world.

The steamer halted at Littleton Island on the 2d of August. A number of
articles were found at "Life-Boat Cove," that had been left by the
Polaris expedition in 1873. A quantity of coal was unloaded here to be
taken aboard on the return.

Steaming up Kennedy Channel, a deposit of provisions was made near
Franklin Island and Carl Ritter Bay.



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